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Le Decameron de mesire Jehan Bocace Florentin. Paris: Roffet, Castiglione, Baldesare. Il libro del Cortegiano. Bruno Maier. Turin: Uniono Tipografico, The Book of the Courtier. Charles S.
New York: Doubleday, Cave, Terence. The Cornucopian Text. Oxford: Clarendon, Charon-Parent, Annie. Henri-Jean Martin. Geneva: Droz, Colonna, Francesco. Le Songe de Poliphile.
Jean Martin. Gilles Polizzi. Paris: Imprimerie Nationale, Cotgrave, Randall. A Dictionary of the French and English Tongues. Dante Alighieri. The Divine Comedy. Des Masures, Louis. Lyon: Jean de Tournes, Du Bellay, Joachim. Deffence et illustration de la langue Francoyse.
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Jean-Charles Monferran. Fontaine, Marie-Madeleine. Herberay des Essarts, Nicolas.
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Amadis de Gaule. Yves Giraud. Paris: Nizet, Hauvette, Henri. Geneva: Slatkine, Longeon, Claude. Paris: Livre de Poche, Marguerite de Navarre. Commentaire et apparat critique. Renja Salminen.
- Mexicanische Nächte: Erster Theil (German Edition).
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- LA CUCINA RURALE ITALIANA (Italian Edition).
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Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, Paris: Garnier, Montaigne, Michel de. Pierre Villey. Paris: PUF, Norton, Glyn P. Peletier du Mans, Jacques. Paris: Les Belles Lettres, Preisig, Florian. Rothstein, Marian. Francis Goyet. Paris: Livre de poche classique, Stephenson, Barbara.
The Power and Patronage of Marguerite de Navarre. Weinberg, Bernard. Critical Prefaces of the French Renaissance. Philosophical Writings , a collection of hitherto untranslated work by Beauvoir, collected and edited by Margaret Simons and translated by a team of American academics, has just appeared, as the first in the 36 FLS, Vol. A strong resurgence of interest is apparent.
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It is also due to the critical focus on the English translations of her work, a focus that dates from the s. Both Simons and Klaw, now involved in the retranslations, published criticisms of existing Beauvoir translations, commenting insightfully on various aspects of the English texts. Klaw writes, The English translation evidently also judged the novel as too sexually explicit: […] the two scenes evoking oral sex are neatly omitted in the English text and several passages are changed either to attenuate the boldness of the sexual imagery or to strengthen the criticism of women who act upon their desires.
The criticisms became so detailed that existing Beauvoir translations in English were no longer deemed acceptable as material to cite. Wilhelm Stekel, a German sexologist of the s, who reported on his women patients. Beauvoir incorporates statements by women patients and descriptions of sexual encounters that she has culled from Stekel. These are often narratives, told in the first person, or accounts that include direct quotes from dialogue with the patient. Une autre se croyait hermaphrodite. One, for example, regarded the navel as the organ of copulation and was unhappy about its being closed.
Another thought she was a hermaphrodite.
In the passage above, the deletion of how the girl handles and explores her body — her attempt to introduce a finger into her navel — strikes the personal, helplessly exploratory, element from the text. When the French and English versions are compared, the differences are apparent, and we may well ask about the effect of such differences multiplied throughout the entire text. Translation Criticism: a Rare Event Translation criticism is not exactly a booming field of study in the humanities.
Nor do professional reviewers, who regularly work with texts in English translation, indulge in such activity. Largely, these refer to the readability of the text in the language of translation. It is rare to find scholars or reviewers engaging with the act and the effects of translation.
Many others have begun examining this invisible space that translation occupies, and proposed more specific ways of filling it: Lawrence Venuti is perhaps the most voluble American critic on this topic. A piece of contemporary text that cites an older authority causes a look backward, a rereading, a reinterpretation of this predecessor. In the process of this rereading and rewriting, the source text is released from its existing translation, set free from the entanglements that have tied it down to a certain representation, and it goes on to live other lives, for other readers.
The criticisms of Beauvoir translations convinced readers and publishers alike of the need for or perhaps usefulness of new versions. In this, they are akin to work done on Bible translations at the time — another example of a new intellectual ecology in the wake of the feminist movement Simon. XXXVI, completion — has developed, in both translation criticism and theory.
French-English Dictionary (35,273 Entries)
This is the chaos that translation has been seeking to temper and mediate ever since. Citing George Steiner, Littau argues that the story of Pandora is one of two major myths ruling translation; the other is the story of Babel. And yet, the story of Pandora is unclear, quite diffuse, contingent upon retellings by Hesiod a farmer turned misogynist poet , debatable translations by Erasmus, among others , and a multitude of different images — in three dimensions, carved in stone, and in two dimensions.
To translate her name in her name is therefore not finally to translate her, to translate her at last, to approximate some original condition, but rather to translate again, to retranslate. They can work to posit translation and retranslation in terms of generous regenerative processes rather than in the usual terms of deficiencies.
This relationship moves beyond the idealist metaphoric approach to translation — where the one text supposedly replaces the other, yet never does so wholly; it also eschews the more realist metonymic view of translation — where a translation only ever presents a part of the original that then stands for the whole.