Then the samples were macerated in three kinds of solvent gradually, namely n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and ethanol, thus obtained three kinds of extracts. Cytotoxicity activity test were performed against L leukemia cells by the direct method using trypan blue staining. The most active extracts inhibited the growth of leukemia L cells was ethanol extract IC 50 of 4. Fraction 2 was the most active fraction inhibited L leukemia cells with IC 50 value Cytotoxic activity of fraction 2 of sirih merah leaves up to 7.
TLC chromatogram of fraction 2 unirradiated and irradiated to a dose of 7. Based on the results of the cytotoxic activity of fraction 2 against L leukemia cells and concluded that the TLC profiles of 7. This article studies the cinematography of Jorge Ruiz making use of the socio-spatial theory of Henri Lefebvre. It argues that his documentaries, ethnographic films and newsreels for the cinema constitute a discursive totality that presents aesthetically the production of the Bolivian state space during the twentieth century.
Monimiaceae chilenas. Moreau, Phragmidium violaceum Schultz G.
Winter, and Fusarium oxysporum Schltdl. The main components were ascaridol in P. The essential oil from L. Therefore, essential oils from these three plants could be used to control the fungal strains studied. Se determinaron los compuestos de aceites esenciales de Monimiaceae chilenas, boldo Peumus boldus Mol.
En cambio. The Nevado del ruiz volcano NdR, m asl , one of the most active in Colombia, threatens about , people. The existence of an ice cap and several streams channeling in some main rivers increase the risk of lahars and mudflows in case of unrest, as occurred during the November eruption, which caused 20, casualties. The involvement of the local hydrothermal system has also produced in the past phreatic and phreatomagmatic activity, as in and After more than 7 years of relative stability, since , the still ongoing phase of unrest has produced two small eruption in , and still maintains in high levels of seismicity and SO2 degassing.
In October , a sampling campaign has been performed on thermal springs and streamwater, located at m asl, analyzed for water chemistry and stable isotopes. By applying a model of steam-heating, based on mass and enthalpy balances, we have estimated the mass rate of steam discharging in the different steam-heated springs.
The vapour discharged at the steam vent "Nereidas" m asl is hypothesised to be separated from a high-temperature hyrothermal system. Based on its composition and on literature data on fluid inclusions, we have retrieved the P-T-X conditions of the deep hydrothermal system, as well as its pH and fO2. The approach taken in this case by the ECJ is novel in part due to the own approach to the questions and especially by the arguments around the status of citizen of the EU and the notion of citizenship itself.
The key issue of the suit seeks to ascertain the impact of the European Union nationality of some underage children, who have not exercised their right of free movement, on the residency status irregular of the parents who are nationals of a third country. This Judgment implies a review of one of the favorite topics for scholars -the notion of citizenship- to, from a different perspective, think about the impact of the status of citizen of the Union in the scope of application of Community law.
It is possible to read in it considerations of great interest to know his aesthetic thought and his ideas about public, the role of the women, praises about the adaptation realized from the original novel, as well as interesting considerations on the relations between literature and cinema. Field guides for excursions to the Nevado del Ruiz Volcano and to the Romeral Fault System Colombia, in the frame of the Neotectonics of arc-continent collision concepts.
Full Text Available Central Cordillera of Colombia near to the Nevado del Ruiz volcano, is a seismically active area above the subducting slab of the Nazca plate and deforming upper crust of the Andes. Buildings in the region require strengthening against the effects of both types of hazards: earthquakes and volcanoes. During these trips, we will discuss the 13 November, , Nevado del Ruiz Volcano eruption that destroyed the Armero city with about 22, deceases, as well the 25 January, , Armenia earthquake M 6.
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The economic impact of the quake on the region was significant with about coffee farms either completely or partially destroyed and over 13, structures either partially damaged or completely destroyed. Both phenomena are associated to a large-transversal structure termed Caldas tear, which is controlling strong motion earthquakes and the Quaternary volcanism of the northern Andes. PURPOSE: to study the histochemical changes related to the uterine cervix glycosaminoglycan of the albino female rat, after local ministration of. Los morfotipos evaluados difieren en el contenido de capsaicina y dihidrocapsaicina, en C.
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Effects on the different atmospheric properties due to Volcano Nevado del Ruiz activity on Nov. This article shows the air humidity effects, starting one day before, due to the action of the previous volcanic gases and ashes emitted which were located and accumulated to Wand NW of the volcano by action of the local and general movements. Comparative analysis of seed rain of Gaiadendron punctatum Ruiz and Pavon G. Don loranthaceae and Ternstroemia meridionalis mutis ex l.
Gaiadendron punctatum Ruiz and Pavon G. Don and Ternstroemia meridionalis mutis ex l. The seed rain and fruiting phenology of G. Records were kept between March and December of This period included dry and wet seasons.
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Eight traps with a recollection surface of 1 m 2 were installed. Fruiting of G. The higher fruiting was shown in the wet season. Both species presented seed rain during all the study. Most abundance of G. In spite of low seed rain for T. Although the number of seeds of T. Se levantaron 10 parcelas de muestreo de 10 x 20 m, acorde con las consociaciones establecidas por el IGAC.
El pH del suelo ha variado de 3. In this article we will study the relation of the Hispanic versions with the prototypic text. The labella of Maxillaria acuminata Lindl. Histochemical analysis revealed that the chemical composition of the secretion is similar in all three species, consisting largely of lipid and protein.
In a fourth taxon, M. Light microscopy and low-vacuum scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the secretory process. Lipid bodies vary in appearance and this may reflect differences in chemical composition. They become associated with the plasmalemma and eventually accumulate between the latter and the cell wall. The wall contains no pits or ectodesmata, and it is speculated that lipid passes through the wall as small lipid moieties before eventually reassembling to form lipid globules on the external surface of the cuticle. These globules are able to coalesce forming extensive viscid areas on the labellum.
The possible significance of this process to pollination is discussed. This book, which goes far beyond a traditional collection of technical articles, is dedicated to Enric Trillas, a fuzzy systems pioneer but also an internationally renowned researcher in other areas of science, such as mathematics and aerospace, and an outstanding manager of scientific affairs in Spain.
Some of the contributions in this book develop technical, state-of-the-art themes obviously related to fuzzy logic, while others resemble popular-science articles that shed light on complex mathematical concepts. While planning this book project, the editors decided to give contributors absolute freedom of thought and expression in preparing their chapters. Andres Ehin. Hispaania luuletajast Antonio Machadost. Bioactivities of Piper aduncum L. Chemical composition proved to be unusually different from previous reports for safrole-rich P. Preliminary analgesic and antithrombotic activities evidenced the absence of the former in hot plate and edema assays and a limited antiplatelet action against three different agonists ADP, AA and U Both oils have a very limited antioxidant capacity.
All rights reserved. This study aimed to assess the asexual propagation of Psychotria viridis by leaf cuttings. The cuttings were immersed in distilled water for a period of 70 days. In all the treatments, the rooting was observed to occur in the region of the cut, or Discurso pronunciado por el Dr. Y digo existen Porque vivimos espocialmente un momento de cambio.
Y que al tiempo, gracias a los avances de la anestesia, la antisepsia y la asepsia, se iba hacienda cada vez mas procedimental, mas operatoria y por lo tanto mas curativa Full Text Available Under the concept that Brunellia belongs to the Cunoniaceae rather thant being separated in Brunelliaceae, this paper examines the systematic position of Brunellia by studying the phylogentic relationships of this taxon with eleven ingrow taxa representing Cunoniaceae and using twenty characters.
A total of twelve taxa represent the ingroup. The Hennig86 program based on parsimony was used to choose the hypotheses about relationships. The data of the internal group was analyzed first with four outgroups: Connarus, Davidsonia, Fothergilla y Quercus, then excluding Quercus and last with each of the outgroups independently. Data were polarized for the last analysis. Results showed that Brunellia does not belong to Cunoniaceae and Cunoniaceae is not a monophyletic group. I propose that Brunellia, and Spiraeanthemun-Acsmithia under a different family from Cunoniaceae. More research is necessary to corroborate the relationships of these taxa.
The monophylyot the Cunoniaceae is also doubtful because some of its genera are nested with Davidsonia. The results also confirmed the relationships between the Rosidae and the lower Hamameliidae. Discussion about plesiomorphic and apomorphic states conditions are given for the Rosidae.
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The monophyly of none of Engler's tribes is confirmed. Un total de doce taxones hacen parte del grupo interno. La apomortla y pleslomorfta de algunos caracteres es discutida. La monofilia de ninguna de las tribus de Engler es confirmada. Full Text Available Acto de entrega de su mandato presidencial 23 de abril de The hydrothermal activity in the NRV generates alteration characterized by mineral associations depending on a number of physic-chemical factors of the hydrothermal system.
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Petrography of unaltered rocks was used to establish the mineral assemblage prior to rock-fluid interaction. XRD was used in altered rocks, where it was not possible to recognize the alteration products.
The observed mineral assemblages indicate advanced and intermediate argillic alterations, this and the observation of ve The hydrothermal activity in the NRV generates alteration characterized by mineral associations depending one number of physic-chemical factors of the hydrothermal system. However, the proximity to the volcano and the presence of acid thermal waters and steam pose an apparent contradiction with an expected high sulphidation zone which is explained by climatic conditions, where excess water has dissolved and leached sulfides, sulphur and sulphates close to the volcano.