While designing the instrument, he received electrical engineering advice from biophysics pioneer Britton Chance. Chance also introduced Lilly to the world of computers, which was still in its infancy. He and several other students transcribed their notes from the class into a book with the same title. The director of the Manhattan Project, General Leslie Groves , attempted to suppress publication of the book, but was unable to because no classified data was used in writing the book. Lilly was a physician and psychoanalyst.
He made contributions in the fields of biophysics , neurophysiology , electronics , computer science , and neuroanatomy. He invented and promoted the use of an isolation tank as a means of sensory deprivation. Lilly's eclectic career began as a conventional scientist doing research for universities and government. Gradually, however, he began researching unconventional topics.
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He published several books and had two Hollywood movies based partly on his work. He also developed theories for flotation. In the mid s, Lilly began dolphin cognition and communication research, with an intensive period of work through the late s. This period brought many discoveries about dolphin anatomy and brain structure, as well as behavioral and communication observations.
Thomas in The seaside lab was converted into a dolphin-human cohabitation house by purposely flooding part of the building. It was at this facility that Lilly assistant Margaret Howe Lovatt worked with the dolphin Peter in attempts at inter-species communication. In the s Lilly directed a project that attempted to teach dolphins a computer-synthesised language. Lilly designed a future "communications laboratory" that would be a floating living room where humans and dolphins could chat as equals and develop a common language.
Lilly envisioned a time when all killing of whales and dolphins would cease, "not from a law being passed, but from each human understanding innately that these are ancient, sentient earth residents, with tremendous intelligence and enormous life force. Not someone to kill, but someone to learn from. Lilly's literary rights and scientific discoveries were owned by Human Software, Inc. The John C.
Lilly Research Institute, Inc. During World War II, Lilly researched the physiology of high-altitude flying and invented instruments for measuring gas pressure. After the war, he trained in psychoanalysis at the University of Pennsylvania, where he began researching the physical structures of the brain and consciousness.
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In he published a paper showing how he could display patterns of brain electrical activity on a cathode ray display screen using electrodes he devised specially for insertion into a living brain. Furthermore, Lilly's work  on electrical stimulation of the nervous system gave rise to biphasic charge balanced electrical stimulation pulses later known as "Lilly's wave" or "Lilly's pulses"  , now an established approach to design of safe electrical stimulation in neuroprosthetics.
At the N. Lilly and a research colleague were the first subjects of this research. What had been known as perceptual isolation or sensory deprivation was reconceptualized as Restricted Environmental Stimulation Technique R. Lilly later studied other large-brained mammals and during the late s he established a facility devoted to fostering human-dolphin communication: the Communication Research Institute on St. Thomas in the Virgin Islands.
During the early s, Lilly and coworkers published several papers reporting that dolphins could mimic human speech patterns. In a group of scientists including Lilly gathered at the Green Bank Observatory to discuss the possibility of using the techniques of radio astronomy to detect evidence of intelligent life outside the solar system. They called themselves The Order of the Dolphin after Lilly's work with dolphins.
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They discussed the Drake equation , used to estimate the number of communicative civilizations in our galaxy. In the early s, Lilly was introduced to psychedelic drugs such as LSD and later ketamine  and began a series of experiments in which he ingested a psychedelic drug either in an isolation tank or in the company of dolphins. These events are described in his books Programming and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer: Theory and Experiments and The Center of the Cyclone , both published in Taimni 's Science of Yoga , a modernized interpretation of the Sanskrit text, most suited to his goals.
He also paid special attention to self-enquiry meditation advocated by Ramana Maharshi , and reformulated the principles of this exercise with reference to his human biocomputer paradigm described in Programming and Metaprogramming in the Human Biocomputer: Theory and Experiments and The Center of the Cyclone. Lilly later traveled to Chile and trained with the spiritual leader Oscar Ichazo whose attitude to metaphysical consciousness exploration Lilly characterized as "empirical" in his book The Center of the Cyclone.
Lilly's maxim: "In the province of the mind what one believes to be true, either is true or becomes true within certain limits. These limits are to be found experimentally and experientially. When so found these limits turn out to be further beliefs to be transcended.
In the province of the mind there are no limits. However, in the province of the body there are definite limits not to be transcended. Solid State Intelligence S. According to Lilly, the network of computation-capable solid state systems electronics engineered by humans will eventually develop into an autonomous "bioform". Since the optimal survival conditions for this bioform low-temperature vacuum are drastically different from those humans need room temperature aerial atmosphere and adequate water supply , Lilly predicted or "prophesied", based on his ketamine -induced visions a dramatic conflict between the two forms of intelligence.
In , Lilly's research using various psychoactive drugs led him to believe in the existence of a certain hierarchical group of cosmic entities , the lowest of which he later dubbed Earth Coincidence Control Office E. Lilly also wrote that there are nine conditions that should be followed by people who seek to experience coincidence in their own lives:. Lilly died of heart failure at age 86 in Los Angeles on September 30, His remains were cremated. Lilly's work with dolphins and the development of the sensory deprivation tank have been referenced in movies, music and television productions.
Clarke set in a strange and fascinating research community where a brilliant professor tries to communicate with dolphins. In the novel The Listeners , Lilly and the other scientists who were members of the Order of the Dolphin are mentioned as pioneers. You can keep up on the latest news , but for now if you want aliens, you are going to have to create them yourself. General SF term for an extraterrestrial or alien possessing human-level intelligence see sophont.
An evolved biological intelligence. Implies human-level cognitive and linguistic ability but not necessarily tool use.
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More specific and etymologically correct than sentient. Still less common than that term, but has been used by multiple writers. Nor is it used for Earth Humans who must register with the immigration service. The occasional intelligent bear or radish may also appear, or practically anything else. Except for the Energy Beings, most seem to be hydrocarbon life forms, but methane breathers who thrive at C will sometimes turn up.
John C. Lilly
What they all have in common is that they are Really Alien. Exosemanticists have their work cut out understanding them, and exopsychologists in figuring out what they're all about. Relations between humans and Really Aliens are necessarily limited, since we have so little in common with them. Only rarely will anybody get to know one on a personal level.
This is partly because it is not clear what we would fight them over, and partly because they may have an alarmingly high TECHLEVEL , making war with them a dangerously one-sided proposition. Dangerous at least for us. Sometimes they look rather less like humans, in which case if friendly they often resemble large teddy bears.
Not only do Aliens with Forehead Ridges mostly look like Earth Humans, they tend to act like Earth Humans as well, or at least one particular real or speculative Earth Human culture. A particular race of Aliens with Forehead Ridges may all have a culture like that of medieval Japan, or one based entirely on music, but you will very rarely find more than one culture per species. The Vulcans and Romulans of Trek fame are a rare exception. Because of the similarity or at least comprehensibility of cultures, Earth Humans can have far more complex and intimate relations with Aliens with Forehead Ridges than with Really Aliens.
We can not only communicate, Trade, and fight, but form joint business ventures, cheat each other at cards, and even fall in love.