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Her repertoire is vast, eclectic, adventurous. She takes on the heavy weights of the Romantic concerti while developing unusual, original concept recital programs. During 20 years of close work as Principal Soloist with the Philadelphia Virtuosi Chamber Orchestra, she completely immersed herself into this more intimate, collaborative genre. She has a hypnotic spell on her audiences and reviewers respond just as strongly to her playing, unveiling a coherent image of a mature and complete artist. Gabriela Imreh is the co-author of Practicing Perfection, a ground breaking book and the culmination of 10 years of painstaking research, that has revolutionized the way pianists and psychologists understand musical memory.
With her beloved record producer, Marvin Reiss, she is developing a series of solo albums to be released on the Arabesque label, which is distributing her solo recordings exclusively.
The Prelude to the World War
During downtimes she is writing autobiographical essays to eventually contribute to her second book, indulges in allowing more space for her love of gourmet cooking, painting watercolors, jewelry, fashion, interior design, charitable work, and not in the least her incessant appetite for reading.
As she was finishing her studies she met young American conductor Daniel Spalding who was touring Romania and so started the most romantic of love stories that seemed meant for the large screen. After many months of harassment from the Romanian Secret Service, the Securitate , having all her concerts canceled and being segregated into isolation, Gabriela eventually received her permission to marry. He provided French surgery with sufficient support to let it emerge from beneath the shadow of the physicians and thus establish itself as a serious, independent discipline. In the winter of , Louis developed a tumour in the crotch area.
Most likely, the lump was caused by an inflammation of one of the glands in this area. Glandular inflammation was apparently common in the 17th century 4. When a perianal abscess developed, it was punctured to let the pus flow out. In some way, it proved possible to dry out the wound applying compresses soaked in extracts from various leaves as well as from roses cooked in red wine Burgundy.
The doctors also succeeded in filling the cavity that had formed by injecting various substances, a process that caused the king great pain.
The French Revolution and the Birth of Modernity
His Majesty became increasingly irate over the abscess which continued to leak pus, forcing him to change clothes two or three times every day after dinner 5. His afflictions continued over many months. The pain was pronounced, but every time he felt better, the doctors continued their treatment sessions consisting of enemas and laxatives, which only served to aggravate the misery 5. Most likely, the constant treatments with a red-hot iron had helped increase the size of the crater. After having struggled with pain and other discomfort for many months, the king realised that the physicians were powerless.
He decided to undergo surgery.
In the meanwhile he isolated himself in his private Versailles apartments, sullen and cantankerous. Even the court saw very little of him. He had to abandon riding, and every time he was seen out in the gardens he was sitting in a sedan chair.
No surgeon dared lay hands on the Sun King without prior practice. The great operation was planned in detail and in complete secrecy. The Dauphin was not informed. The identity of the guinea pigs has remained unclear, but patients from hospitals in the town of Versailles have been mentioned 6.
16. The Treaty of Versailles: The Peace to End All Peace
Historians have unsuccessfully attempted to find out how they fared — or more correctly, how many of them died — but to no avail. It was rumoured that the deceased were buried at sunrise and with no tolling of church bells, to prevent anybody from getting wind of what had happened. One patient is thought to have survived 4. He was especially concerned with finding the correct type of instrument. On the day before the operation, the king inspected his gardens Figure 3 , monitored the ongoing works, ate his evening meal with his family, and after another round of excruciating pain made the final decision to undergo surgery the next day.
On 18 November at seven a. The parties involved were already in place. The king had been administered a pre-operative enema. He appeared to have his nerves under control and took a great interest in the various instruments that were to be used. He was then placed on a bed with his face towards the window.
A pillow was placed under his stomach while his thighs were spread and held up by two apothecaries. Daquin, with his condescending attitude to surgeons, would most likely have preferred not to mention this episode at all. He made sure to add that a blood-letting was also performed.
- Euro Why France have everything to play for | World news | The Guardian;
- Louis XIV (King of France, 1643-1715).
- Cassis, France.
On the following day he wrote a full 18 pages. The whereabouts of this document in subsequent years is unknown, but in the papers resurfaced and were put up for auction with an asking price of EUR 7. Given the present interest in objects with a connection to royalty, the final price is likely to have been far higher.
The three-hour long operation was performed without any form of anaesthetic. And not only did the king survive — the operation must be called a success, because he was cured. Admittedly, he needed two repeat surgeries, but he was quite naturally very relieved and happy after the first major operation. He was back on his feet no more than two days later. Louis XIV showed great courage in letting himself undergo surgery. To be sure, he was cornered — he really had no choice, either politically or personally. In France was in a difficult position, isolated and resented, and facing an alliance of the majority of European countries the League of Augsburg 8.
A surgical intervention was the last resort, and the decision was not taken until months of other unsuccessful treatments had been attempted. For Louis, whom we know was anxious of smaller surgical procedures, such as bloodletting 3 , 4 , this must have been a difficult decision. He must be deemed to have shown great courage to undergo such an extensive and potentially dangerous operation risk of bleeding with no anaesthetic.
The fistula operation had a number of consequences. To all those who suffered from a fistula, the operation brought hope of a cure, and like everything else that the Sun King undertook, this also became fashionable in Versailles. The courtiers lined up to have the same procedure done, whether or not they had a fistula. Those with no fistula were turned away by the surgeons 9. Like the Sun King, the surgeon also deserves to be termed courageous. The consequences of a failed operation, not to mention the death of the monarch, would certainly have been less pleasant.
This joint display of heroism and courage caused French surgical medicine to flourish. Rumours of the successful operation spread throughout Europe, and people flocked to France to be operated on by the skilful French surgeons. From being virtually unnoticed in the shadow of the physicians and dominated and scorned by them, the surgeons stole the limelight in a way never before seen.
He had to reposition an arm after a riding accident in Surgical assistance also became necessary later because of an abscess on the back of his neck. Georges Mareschal was known all over Europe for his skills in operating on bladder stones The death of Louis XIV in was caused by a major medical blunder — the physicians opposed a surgical intervention and mistook an incipient gangrene for sciatica. Using his power and influence, the Sun King restored the independence of surgical medicine. He often had to intervene in quarrels between the powerful faculty of medicine in Paris and his own doctors.
Being the chief royal surgeon meant holding the supreme surgical position in the country